Saturday, March 19, 2016


Civil War: a conflict between groups (lower-class and upper-class) within the same country, followed the deaths of Tiberius and Gaius (two brothers who proposed reforms that limited the size of estates and gave land to the poor in order to help them, and made senators feel threatened )

Julius Caesar: a strong leader and a genius at military strategy, won his men's loyalty and devotion in the war. The dictator of Rome, died by the assassination.

Triumvirate: a group of three rulers that dominated Rome (Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey)

Augustus: Octavian, the grandnephew and adopted son of Caesar, who joined with Mark Antony and Lepidus to take control of Rome and ruled for ten years as the Second Triumvirate. Eventually became the unchallenged ruler of Rome after defeating the combine forces of Antony and Cleopatra at the naval battle of Actium in 31 BC.

Pax Romana: Roman peace, the period of peace and prosperity. Rome was at the peak of its power from the beginning of Augustus's rule in 27 BC to AD 180 (totally 207 years). During this time, the Roman Empire included more than 2 million square miles. Its population numbered between 60 and 80 million people. About 1 million people lived in the city of Rome itself.

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