Thursday, April 28, 2016

Notes of Crusade

Age of Faith
- church has a complete system
- collect money and found stuff
- not only spiritual but also political power


- Muslims (new religion) controlled here in late 11th
- holy city to Muslims, Christians and Jews
- in a singel place and close

Holy War

- government and church work together (Pope Urban II)
- recaptured Jerusalem from Muslims
- crusade: taking of the cross
- do this get immediate forgiveness
- still continue today

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

Notes Again

New Society
- Roman Empire
- Roman Church
- tribes

Roman Empire
- eastern (easy to control)
- western
- trade decline (not safety → no legion to protect)
- so stay home not travel → economy decline
- city (horrible to live)
- population shifts from city to rural (can alive)

- decrease of learning ability
- tribes (telling story) oral
- most important written in Greek/Latin
- all doing just job
- Romance language (language out of Roman Empire)
- similar but different (cannot understand)
- nobody setting school
- no kids go to school just work for living

Medieval Period
- rich people won a little army
- set people themselves
- lord of manor
- have people to perform (skills)

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

The Crusades

- the Age of Faith
- Roman Empire is the strongest kingdom
- the Church has considerable spiritual and political power
- over 500 Gothic cathedrals were built in Europe (1170-1270)

- controlled by Muslims (late 11th century)
- Islam's 3rd holiest City (Mecca and Medina)
- Holy City to Jews and Christians
Dome of the Rock (Islam)
Church of the Holy Sepulcher (Christian)
Western Wall (Judaism)

The "Holy War"
- Emperor Alexius Comnenus wrote a letter to Pope Urban II (1093)
- Pope put out the call for Christians to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim Turks
- religiously sanctioned military campaigns (1095-1291)
- crusade: taking of the cross (crux)
- "soldiers of the Church" took vows to take back the Holy Land
- Pope: who died in the endeavor would receive immediate remission for their sins
- Roger Bacon: Muslims who survive are more and more embittered against the Christian faith

- Byzantine Empire is weakened
- Pope's power declines
- power of feudal nobles weakens
- religious intolerance grows
- Italian cities expand trade
- Muslims distrust Christians
- trade grows between Europe and Middle East
- European technology improves (Christians learn from Muslims)

Germanic Kingdoms Unite under Charlemagne

Main Idea
- Germanic kingdoms were reunited under Charlemagne's empire
- Charlemagne spread Christianity to northern Europe

Setting the Stage
- Middle Ages = medieval period (AD 476-1453)
- fragmented

Roots of New Society
- classical heritage of Rome
- beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church
- customs of various Germanic tribes

Germanic invaders overrun the Roman Empire (5th century)
- disruption of trade
- downfall of cities
- population shifts to rural areas

Effects of Invasion
- decline of learning
tribes cannot read Greek or Latin
Romance languages evolve
few were literate

Germanic Kingdoms
- emerge AD 400-600
- warriors' loyalty to the lord of manor (provides food/weapons/treasure)
- result
no orderly government for large areas
small communities rule

- rules Germanic people of Gual (Franks)
- in 496 had a battlefield conversion (Christians)
- by 511 Franks are united into one kingdom (Clovis and the Church)

Spread of Christianity
- church + Frankish ruler = rise in Christianity
- rules for monks (Benedict in 520)
vows of poverty
- similar rules for nuns (sister Scholastica)
- they operate schools, maintain libraries and copy books

- Pope Gregory I (Gregory the Great) goes secular
- church revenues for helping poor, building roads and raising armies
- Christendom extends from Italy to England from Spain to Germany

- Clovis rules Franks until his death (511)
- rest of Europe consists of smaller kingdoms
- Charles Martel known as Charles the Hammer
- Battle of Tours in 732 (Hammer defeats a Muslim raiding party from Spain)

Follow the Hammer
- Pepin the Short (son)
- works with Church and is named "king by the grace of God" by the Pope
- dies in 768, leaving 2 sons
- Carolman (dies in 771)
- Charles, known as Charlemagne (Charles the Great)

Monday, April 25, 2016

Christianity in the Pax Romona

- backstory leading into the Middle Ages
- a new religion in the empire

- begin with Jesus
- comes from Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John
- Gospel: good news
- no way Jesus looked like this

- Jewish itinerant preacher in Judea
- set himself apart from other "Messiahs" (the only one)
- did not set new religion
- did not revolt the government
- taught God's personal relationship to each human being
- message of love
- did not go far
- be famous after death when Paul walked around
- come to the end of world and bring faithful into the kingdom of God
- both human and divine
- crucified because threat to Rome
- Apostles spread his teaching around world

Start Spreading the News
- Paul of Tarsus became the follower of Jesus after a miraculous vision
- predestination: God chose who was to be saved and who was to be damned
- well-traveled, helped found churches, keep in touch with new Christians by letters
- outlaw cult → actual religion

- both Jew and Christians were monotheistic
- refused to worship Roman gods
- easy to travel and spread idea (not only Paul)
- poor Romans were a receptive audience

Problem with Monotheistic
- sometimes persecuted by Roman authorities (contradicted law)
- could be exiled, imprisoned, executed, crucified, burned or killed by wild animal
- the things goes wrong for Roman Empire
- scapegoats were needed

- embraced all people (men and women, enslaved, poor)
- gave hope to powerless
- appeal who was disgusted by imperial Rome's decadence
- offer personal relationship with God
- promise eternal life after death

Conversion of Constantine (AD 312)
- turning point
- Roman emperor Constantine has a vision before a key battle
- image is a cross and some words in the sky (in this sign conquer)
- order troop to put cross on shields
Then they win!

Edict of Milan (AD 313)
- approved by emperor
- continues to gain strength
- by 380 became official religion
- Chi-Rho

Decline of Roman Empire
- last emperor in 476 (14-year-old boy: Romulus Augustulus)
- military: weak to defend
- economy: tax too high, gap, trade, rich and poor
- social: population decrease, disloyalty, no one cares public affairs
- political: division

Friday, April 22, 2016


I was not here on Friday because of the chorus field trip.

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Test Back

Today Mr. Schick gave us test paper back, but not included mine, because all other students took the test on Monday while I was not here, so I just made up today.
I heard the test was difficult, but actually when I took it, I felt it was really, really difficult, though all questions were multiple choices. I knew most of the questions, and felt not sure with some, and had never seen few of them. Just like "who's the woman Tarquin's son attacked" or "where's the territory of Carthage now", I really had no idea and got them wrong. But luckily I took guess many times and just got these two wrong. Carol told me that we can find all of the answers in PowerPoint, but I thought I had already read every word on each slide and still failed to find them, so where exactly were them? Maybe just be mentioned in class.

Friday, April 15, 2016

Test Review

Today we reviewed for the test next Monday about ancient Rome.
Conner and Collins provided many questions for us, some are good, but some also are unnecessary I think, especially those about the date and years. It is really meaningless to remember them. 
And here is a good news that Mr. Schick will put some of these questions in the test.
Then after reviewing, we watched a movie about one of the Punic War. To be honest I cannot identify which war it is, but I think it is good.
By the way, I have to say Mr. Fredryk's room is freezing.

In 44 BC Julius Caesar was assassinated by senators.
First Triumvirate: Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus
Second Triumvirate: Octavius, Mark Anthony and Lepidus
First Punic War: naval battle
Carthage never won Punic War
Caesar recognized the advantage of plebeians

Thursday, April 14, 2016

Rome Notes5

Caesar Seizing Power
- served as consul for 1 year
- appointed himself the governor of Gaul
- Pompey felt jealous then they became rivals
- Caesar's army clashed his army in Greece, Asia, Spain and Egypt
- in 44 BC became dictator
- first for 6 months then for life (people like him)

- granted citizenship to people in provinces (made them on his side)
- expanded senate (added his friends)
- created jobs for poor, especially public work project
- increased the pay for soldiers
- started colonies that people without land can own property

Why: his increasing power treated senators' political viability
How: lured him into senate and stabbed 23 times (finally stopped resisting)
Who: even included Brutus (Caesar's ally)
- senators did not be punished
- Octavius was Caesar's sole heir
- end of the Republic

Aftermath to the Murder
- Octavius took over (18)
- Mark Antony and Lepidus
- Second Triumvirate

A Doomed Alliance
- Octavius forced Lepidus to retire
- he became rival with Anthony
- Anthony partners up with Cleopatra of Egypt (female pharaoh)
- Octavius defeated them at the Battle of Actium

Octavius on His Way
- unchallenged ruler of Rome
- "Augustus" (honored one)
- "imperator" (supreme military commander)
- ↑ origin of word emperor
- Rome became empire not republic

Augustus (27BC-AD14: 41 years)
Tiberius (AD14-37)
- after son's death exiled himself from Rome and left his perfects in charge
Caligula (AD37-41)
- known as his cruelty, extravagance and perversity
- assassinated by a group of guards, senators, and imperial court, trying to re-establish the republic
Claudius (AD41-54)
- suffered fro many infirmties
- took over because he was the last male in his family
- ruled well
- died by poisoning (last wife's plan)
- made her son Nero take over
Nero (AD 54-68: 14 years)
- emphasized the arts
- huge fire in AD64 (though he did not fiddle)
- want to rebuild Rome to make it majestic
- hugely overspent, even raided temples for money
- historians do not look kindly on him

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

Rome Notes4

A Change in Rule
Tiberius Gracchus recognized the advantages of courting plebeians (though unsuccessful)
Military generals lead a army that conquer a land and share it with them

Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE)
General, public speaker
Conquered a huge territory of Gaul (not France)
- made common folks happy
- made friends with people in high places
Pompey (general who conquered Syria and Palestine)
Crassus (the richest people in Rome)
First Triumvirate (rule of three men)
Became the dictator
→ middle class happy but senates not

Tuesday, April 12, 2016

Rome Notes3

Punic War
1st: 23 years
2nd: 17 years
3rd: 3 years
Rome let Carthage pay actual money
Burnt Carthage for 17 days
Plebeians changed a lot after Punic War

Economic change, social upheaval
Slaves poured to Italy
In the end of 2nd century BCE: over million slaves
↑ good for aristocrats but not good for middle class and farmers
Farmers hard work because men were fighting wars → no one run things
Cannot pay the debts → lost farms to aristocrats for the money they owed
→ no land for living
→ find jobs (no jobs because slaves worked for free)
Big farms became massive estates called latifundia

Poor plebs: how to make them happy
Hopes for 2 things: bread and circuses
Bread: free grain from state
Circuses: entertainment (Circus Maximus, Colosseum)
Keep them alive and quiet

Saturday, April 9, 2016

Rome Notes 2

Plebeians → victims of discrimination decisions
No legal rights
No actually rights (not written custom)
Patricians interpreted the laws to their advantages

→ refused to serve in military until
Laws were written out (The Law of the Twelve Table)
Posted in public (450 BC)
Tribunes (tribal leaders)

SPQR: the Roman Senate and People

Res publica (Republic)
- democracy (people assembly and tribunes)
- aristocracy (senate around 300)
- monarchy (consuls)
- no tyranny

Ancient Rome and USA
3 branches (executive, legislative and judicial)
both have legal code

- 2 consuls
- 1 year term
- had power to veto each other
- military
- appointed the dictator
- president (vice president)
- 4 years term
- have power to veto proposal law
- commander-in-chief of the military

- 300 senators (aristocrats)
- members for life
- 193 assembly
- members for life
- 100 senators (2 from each state)
- 6 years term
- 435 House of Representatives
- 2 years term
- congress

- praetors
- chosen by Centuriate Assembly
- 1 year term
- supreme court (9 members)
- lifetime term
- appointed by present
- confirmed by senators

Legal code:
Rome - Twelve Table
USA: Bill of Right

Legion - 5000 soldiers (not pay)
- heavy infantry
- recruited exclusively from Roman citizens
80 groups → century
smaller phalanx

The Punic War (264-146 BC)
3 times Rome vs. Carthage
The first war: naval war
Control Sicily island
Rome won
The second war (218-201 BC)
Hannibal (29) attacked Rome from North
Lay siege to much of peninsula for 15 years
The third war (149-146 BC)
Remove threat of Carthage
Burnt Carthage for 17 days
50,000 rest people → slaves
Territories annexed Roman province of Africa

Wednesday, April 6, 2016

Rome Notes

Who settled Rome
Etruscans → lived in north central part of peninsula
Two foundation myths
1) Virgil's Aeneid (escapes from Troy)
2) the story of Remus and Romulus
Greeks → colonies around Mediterranean Sea
Romans got ideas from Greek and improved
religious beliefs, alphabet, art, military techniques and weapons
Latins → descendant of Indo-European
First settled
Situated trading ships (farthest to Rome)

Luaus Tarquinias Superbus
- he seventh and final king of Rome
- Tarquin the Proud
- True Tyrant

King was replaced by 2 consuls
- elected officials
- term 1 year
- patricians (traced descent from ancestors)
- one can veto the other
↑ reducing the power of individuals
5th century BC patrician dominance of government was challenged by plebs
- plebs was 98% population
- plebs had to serve in army but cannot hold office
- debt slavery
- did not have legal rights

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

Roman Empire

A Vast and Powerful Empire
Peak of power: from 27 BC to AD 180 (207 years, from the beginning of Augustus's rule)
↑ Pax Romana (Roman peace): no fighting except with tribes along the borders
- 3 million square miles
- between 60 and 80 million people

A Sound Government
Effective government and able rulers (Augustus)
- created a system of government (civil service)
Paid workers (plebeians) to manage the affairs of government
↑ maintained the empire's stability
Control: from Spain to Mesopotamia, from North Africa to Britain
↑ different languages, cultures and customs

Agriculture and Trade
90% people engaged in farming → local produce
Denarius (a silve coin) was in use throughout the empire → trade easier
Vast trading network: from east to Mediterranean → many cities grew wealthy
Roads linked the empire to far-flung places
- originally built by army for military purposes

The Roman World
Gravitas: discipline, strength and loyalty (Roman virtue)
Most people lived in countryside and worked on farms
Different people came together to create a diverse society

Slaves and Captivity
Widespread and important to the economy
made more use of slaves than any previous civilization (1/3 population)
Slaves: conquered people, slaves' children
- can be bought and sold
- the property of their owners
- can be punished, rewarded, set free or put to death
Worked both in the city and on the farm
- treated cruelly
- worked at hard labor all day long
Forced to be gladiator (strong healthy males)
None of the slave revolts succeeded (more than million died for freedom)

Gods and Goddesses
Numina: powerful spirits or divine forces (worshiped)
↑ resided in everything around them
Lares: the guardian spirits of each family
- honored through rituals → gain favor and avoid misfortune
Government and religion were linked
- deities were symbols of the state
- expected to honor them in public ceremonies
Jupiter: father of gods
Juno: Jupiter's wife, watched over women
Minerva: wisdom and art and craft
Worship of the emperor also became part of the official religion of Rome

Society and Culture
Wealth and social status made huge differences in how people lived
- spent a lot of money on homes, gardens, slaves and luxuries
- banquets
- much of the population was unemployed
- government supported daily ration pf grain
- crowded into risker, sprawling tenements (fire)
Government provided free games, races, mock battles and gladiator contests
→ to distract and control the masses of Romans
- 150 holidays a year (AD 250)
Colosseum: a huge area that could hold 50,000 people
↑ animal shows/ people vs. animals/ people vs. people
Until one of them was killed
Christianity slowly emerged during the time of Pax Romana
- early followers meet with much brutality and hardship

Monday, April 4, 2016

Works Show

Today some of my classmates showed us what they did for their projects. Some of them made raps, some made videos, and some made power points or debt. All of them did awesome jobs, especially Matt. I liked his rap so much it's really funny. 
Tomorrow our project will be shown first. We made a video, but I think it is different from others. We drew some pictures on paper and wrote down words to explain the conflict between the plebeians and the patricians, then we just recorded the video. To be honest, I think it is just like a power point, but if we made a power point, we just need to find the picture online instead of drawing them down on the paper. The work would be much easier.
The video probably is not so good because when I recorded it my hands were trembling. But the picture we drew are pretty good I think.