Wednesday, March 23, 2016

New Project

Conflict of the Orders 
- the conflict between patricians and plebeians
- lasting from 494 BC to 287 BC
- plebeians sought political equality with the patricians
- played the major role in the development of the Constitution of the Roman Republic
- result: the creation of plebeian tribune (first acquisition of real power by the plebeians)

  • 494 BCE: traditional date of the First Secession of the Plebs, during which they established their own assembly (the Concilium Plebis) and elected their own magistrates, the Tribunes and the Plebeian Aediles.
  • 450 BCE: traditional date of the Law of the Twelve Tables, the first codification of Roman law 
  • 445 BCE: patricians and plebeians were permitted to intermarry 
  • 367 BCE: plebeians became eligible for the consulship
  • 342 BCE: law passed making it mandatory that one of the two Consuls must be a plebeian
  • 339 BCE: law passed making it mandatory that one of the two Censors must be a plebeian
  • 300 BCE: half of the priesthoods (which were also state offices) must be plebeian
  • 287 BCE: Third Secession, won the concession that all plebiscites, measures passed in the Concilium Plebis, had the force of laws for the whole Roman state

    Civil War
    - slaves were forced to work on estates
    - small farmers found it difficult to compete with the large estates run by the labor of enslaved people
    - Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus help Rome's poor
    limiting the size of the estates
    giving the land to the poor
    "The savage beasts have their...dens,...but the men who bear arms and expose their lives for the safety of their country, enjoy...nothing more in it but the air and light... and wander from place to place with their wives and children."
    violent deaths (senators felt threatened by their ideas)

    Tuesday, March 22, 2016

    The Roman Empire

    Territory became larger → republican for of government grew unstable
    Eventually mighty dictator-ruled empire

    The Republic Collapse
    Serious problems with developing:
    - growing discontent of lower classes
    - breakdown of military order
    → shakeup of republic
    → emergence of new political system

    Economic Turmoil
    The gap between rich and poor wider
    Rich → lived in estate; Poor → forced work here (enslaved people 1/3 population)
    Small farmers could not compete with estate
    Farmers: former soldiers, sold land to rich and were homeless/jobless
    → worked in countryside as seasonal migrant laborers
    Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus attempted to help poor (tribunes)
    Reforms: limiting the size of estates; giving land to the poor
    → made enemies of senators
    → both met violent deaths
    Civil War followed their deaths

    Military Upheaval
    The breakdown of the once-loyal military
    General began seizing greater power for themselves
    Recruited soldiers from landless poor by promising then land
    Soldiers fought for pay and were loyal to their own generals replaced who were loyal to the republic

    Julius Caesar Takes Control
    Elected counsel with the help of Crassus and Pomory
    Then dominated Rome as a triumvirate (a group of three rulers) for next ten years
    Caesar only served 1 year as counsel, then appointed himself governor of Gaul
    During 58-50 BC, Caesar conquered all of Gaul and won his men's loyalty in the war
    Pompey → became his political rival
    In 50 BC the senate ordered Caesar to disband his legions and return home, at Pompey's urgings
    Caesar defied and marched his army toward Rome, Pompey fled
    Defeated Pompey's armies in Greece, Asia, Spain and Egypt
    In 46 BC senate appointed him dictator, in 44 BC named for life

    Caesar's Reforms
    - granted Roman citizenship to many people in the provinces
    - expanded the senate, adding friends and supporters
    - helped the poor by creating jobs
    - started colonies where people without land could own property
    - increased pay for soldiers
    Senators and nobles feared losing their influence
    On March 15,  44 BC, stabbed Caesar to death in the senate chamber
    → led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius

    Beginning of the Empire
    Civil war broke out again and destroyed Roman Republic
    Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus took control of Rome and ruled for ten years as the Second Triumvirate
    Alliance ended → Octavian forced Lepidus to retire and became rivals with Antony
    Antony fell in love with Queen Cleopatra of Egypt
    Octavian accused him of plotting to rule Rome from Egypt → another civil war erupted
    Defeated them at the naval battle of Actium in 31 BC → suicided
    Octavian → Augustus, imperator (unchallenged ruler of Rome)

    Saturday, March 19, 2016


    Civil War: a conflict between groups (lower-class and upper-class) within the same country, followed the deaths of Tiberius and Gaius (two brothers who proposed reforms that limited the size of estates and gave land to the poor in order to help them, and made senators feel threatened )

    Julius Caesar: a strong leader and a genius at military strategy, won his men's loyalty and devotion in the war. The dictator of Rome, died by the assassination.

    Triumvirate: a group of three rulers that dominated Rome (Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey)

    Augustus: Octavian, the grandnephew and adopted son of Caesar, who joined with Mark Antony and Lepidus to take control of Rome and ruled for ten years as the Second Triumvirate. Eventually became the unchallenged ruler of Rome after defeating the combine forces of Antony and Cleopatra at the naval battle of Actium in 31 BC.

    Pax Romana: Roman peace, the period of peace and prosperity. Rome was at the peak of its power from the beginning of Augustus's rule in 27 BC to AD 180 (totally 207 years). During this time, the Roman Empire included more than 2 million square miles. Its population numbered between 60 and 80 million people. About 1 million people lived in the city of Rome itself.

    Wednesday, March 16, 2016


    Democracy: make decisions by people
    Republic: vote for leaders to represent us
    Vote for president every 4 years
    Vote for senators every 6 years (2 per state, 100 total)
    Vote for representatives every 2 years (depend on population, smallest is 2, 438 total)
    Patricians: rich and landowner
    Plebeians: working class, majority of population
    Tribune: elected officials who try to make life better for plebeians (representatives)
    Consul (president): one can reject another, one person did not get too much power
    Never let one person get too much power again (Tarquin the Proud)
    Senate: rich
    check balance
    Dictator: Julius Caesar - good guy, do not mind having too much power
    Legion: army (infantry: century - 80 people)
    Punic Wars: Carthage (down to Africa, powerful) three different wars
    Rome (huge empire)
    Hannibal: pretty young, fight the Rome
    Democracy: elect leaders
    Aristocracy: riches also have power
    Monarchy: have a really powerful person

    Tuesday, March 15, 2016


    Today Mr. Schick got a phone call at the beginning of the class, and then he said he had to leave for a while and asked us to keep quite. I still remembered what happened last semester, but this time I thought we did listen to him and do well. After a while, a man with sunglasses came in. He said he was Mr. Schick's friend Chicago and would sing a song for us later. All of us knew he was Mr. Schick of course, but we did not expose him because it was so funny that pretended to be someone else. And then Chicago showed us the song Rome. I must say that Chicago was really cool and talented, and the song was amazing!!! Then Chicago took off his sunglasses and became Mr. Schick again and showed us some plays of Hamilton which were also pretty cool. We watched these plays until the class finished.
    I think these have already been enough for 150 words. By the way I realized that I wrote wrong person for the short answer "how Alexander was influenced by his two role model" on the test. I regret doing that because I thought it might be Achilles not Aristotle while I was taking the test but then I just gave up this idea since I was not sure and more importantly I did not know how to spell his name..... Hope Mr. Schick could give me few points for nearly hundred words I wrote down (though the content probably is not right).

    Monday, March 14, 2016


    1) patrician: the wealthy landowners who held most of the power
    2) plebeian: the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population
    3) tribune: representatives elected by plebeians and protected the right of them from unfair acts of patrician officials
    4) consul: two Roman officials worked like kings, they commanded the army and directed the government
    5) senate: the aristocratic branch of Rome's government
    - had both legislative and administrative functions
    - 300 members were chosen from upper class
    - later plebeians were allowed in senate
    6) dictator: a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army
    - could be appointed in times of crisis
    - lasted only 6 months
    - chosen by consuls and then elected by senate
    7) legion: a large military units that Roman soldiers were organized into
    - made up of 5000 heavily armed foot soldiers (infantry) 
    - a group of soldiers on horseback (cavalry) supported each legion
    - divided into smaller groups of 80 men (century)
    8) Punic Wars: three wars between Rome and Carthage, Carthage finally lost the wars and became one of the Roman provinces
    9) Hannibal: Carthaginian general, who was a brilliant military strategist and inflicted enormous losses on the Romans in the second Punic War

    The Roman Republic

    Greece → decline; Rome → develop 
    Small settlement → mighty civilization (conquered Mediterranean world)
    One of the most famous and influential empires in history

    The Origins of Rome
    - founded in 753 BC by Romulus and Remus
    - twin sons of god Mars and Latin princess but were abandoned and raised by she-wolf
    - found by men
    - chose spot because of strategic location and fertile soil

    Rome's Geography
    Built on seven rolling hills at a curve on the Tiber River
    Midway between the Alps and Italy's southern tip
    Near the midpoint of Mediterranean Sea
    Near enough for convenience (sea-borne commerce) but not so near as to bring danger from foreign fleets

    The First Romans
    The earliest settlers on the Italian peninsula arrived in prehistoric times
    Latins, Greeks and Etruscans battled for control (100-500 BC)
    Latins: built settlement at Rome (Palatine Hill) ← first Romans
    Greeks: established colonies along southern Italy and Sicily (750-600 BC)
    ↑ commercially active, brought Italy closer with Greek civilization
    Etruscans: northern Italy; skilled metalworkers and engineers
    ↑ influenced Rome: writing, alphabet and architecture (arch)

    The Early Republic
    Around 600 BC an Etruscan became king of Rome → became a big city
    Forum: the heart of Roman political life
    The last king of Rome: Tarquin the Proud (509 BC) a harsh tyrant
    ↑ Romans would never be ruled by a king
    Established a republic (res publica: public affairs)
    A republic is a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders (free-born male citizens)

    Patricians and Plebeians
    In the early republic different groups struggled for power
    Patricians: the wealthy landowners who held most of the power
    ↑ inherited power and social status, 
    "their ancestry gave them the authority to make laws for Rome"
    Plebeians: the common people that made up the majority of the population
    ↑ citizens with right to vote 
    but were barred by law from holding important government positions
    Tribunes: representatives elected by plebeians
    ↑ protected the rights of plebeians

    Twelve Tables
    Important victory for plebeians: force the creation of a written law code
    ↑ patricians interpreted the law to suit themselves
    In 451 BC 10 officials began to write and carved them on twelve tablets and hung in the Forum
    Basis for later Roman law
    Twelve Tables: idea that all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law

    Government Under the Republic
    In the first century BC Roman writers boasted Rome had achieved a balanced government
    ↑ took the best features of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy
    Consuls: two officials of Rome (like kings)
    - term was only 1 year long
    - cannot be elected again for ten years
    - one consul could always veto the other's decisions
    Senate: the aristocratic bench of Rome's government
    - had both legislative and administrative functions
    - 300 members were chosen from upper class
    Later plebeians were allowed in senate
    Assemblies: democratic side of the government
    - example: the Tribal Assembly
    - elected the tribunes and made laws for common people later for republic itself
    Dictator: a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army
    - could be appointed in times of crisis
    - lasted only 6 months
    - chosen by consuls and then elected by senate

    The Roman Army
    All citizens who owned land were required to serve in army
    Seekers of certain public offices had to perform 10 years
    Legions: a large military units that Roman soldiers were organized into
    - made up of 5000 infantry and a group of cavalry
    - divided into smaller groups of 80 men (century)
    The military organization and fighting skill of Roman army were key factors in Rome's rise to greatness

    Rome Spreads Its Power
    For hundreds of years after the founding of the republic, Rome sought to expand its territories through trade and conquest

    Rome Conquers Italy
    Power grew as legions battled for control of the Italian peninsula 
    By the fourth century BC Romans dominated central Italy
    Eventually defeated Etruscans and Greeks (265 BC)
    Had different laws for different parts of its conquered territory
    Latins: full citizens of Rome
    Farther: enjoyed all rights except vote
    Others: allies of Rome (did not interfere as long as supplied troop and did not make treaties of friendship with other state)
    Lenient policy toward defeated enemies helped build long-lasting empire

    Rome's Commercial Network
    Location → easy access to the riches of the lands ringing the Mediterranean Sea
    Merchants traded Roman wine and olive oil for foods, raw materials and manufactured goods from other lands
    Other cities interfered with Roman access to the Mediterranean (Carthage)

    War with Carthage
    In 264 BC Rome and Carthage went to war (began with Punic Wars)
    Between 264 and 146 BC Rome and Carthage fought 3 wars
    - for control of Sicily and western Mediterranean
    - lasted 23 years (264-241 BC)
    - ended in the defeat of Carthage
    Second (Punic War)
    - began in 218 BC
    - mastermind was a 29-year-old Carthaginian general named Hannibal
    - brilliant military strategist who wanted to avenge defeat
    - 50000 infantry, 9000 cavalry and 60 elephants
    - wanted surprise the Roman
    - Spain → France → Alps (lost more than half of his army)
    - won his greatest victory at Cannae in 216 BC (Romans lost a lot)
    - Roman finally regrouped and with the aid of allies stood firm

    Rome Triumphs
    Scipio: Roman military leader who devised a plan to attack Carthage
    - forced Hannibal to return to defend native city
    In 202 BC Romans finally defeated Hannibal at Zama near Carthage
    Third Punic War (149-146 BC):
    - Rome laid siege to Carthage
    - In 146 BC the city was set afire and 50000 inhabitants sold into slavery
    - became a Roman province
    Victories in Punic Wars gave Rome dominance over the western Mediterranean
    Then went on to conquer eastern
    About 70 BC stretched from Anatolia to Spain

    Saturday, March 12, 2016

    Test Review

    Who were Alexander's parents?
    - Philip II and Olympius
    Who did Alexander think his father was?
    - Zeus
    How long did Alexander's expedition last?
    - 11 years
    How long did Alexander role?
    - 13 years
    Who was Alexander's tutor?
    - Aristotle
    How old was Alexander when he became the king?
    - 20
    How old was Alexander when he died?
    - 32
    Where was Alexander born?
    - Pella
    What book did Alexander put under his pillow?
    - Illiad
    Where did Alexander die?
    - Babylon
    What city did Alexander kill every man?
    - Gaza
    What was the name of Alexander's horse?
    - Bucephalus
    What city did it take Alexander 7 months to invade?
    - Tyre
    What two areas were brought together from the Hellenistic?
    - East and West
    How long did it take Alexander to quell the first rebellion?
    - 2 years

    Thursday, March 10, 2016

    Test Question

    1) How old was Alexander when he became the king of Macedonia?  
    - 20
    2) Who was Alexander's teacher?  

    - Aristotle
    3) Where did Alexander conquer? 

    - Persia, Egypt and part of Asia
    4) What are the impacts of Alexander's conquers?
    - he adopted Persian dress and customs- blend western and eastern culture
    - included people from Persian and other islands in his army

    - spread Greek culture
    5) What's the difference between Alexander and Darius in the battlefield?
    - Alexander fought with his soldiers and protected them
    - Darius just stayed far away and commanded
    6) What did Egyptians do when Alexander marched here?
    - They welcomed Alexander and titled him pharaoh
    7) True or False: Egyptian culture and tradition were reserved after Alexander took over it
    - True
    8) Where did Alexander die?
    - Babylon
    9) True or False: Alexander recruited Persian people to be in his army
    - True
    10) Where is Alexander's tomb now?
    - In a museum in England

    How did Alexander die? take 11 days to die
    No exact answer yet. Might be murdered by his man, died by poison, drunk a lot, or got a fever.

    How did Philip die?
    He was murdered by his guard, or Alexander

    Who killed Darius and why?
    His office because he fled from battlefield twice

    Who used Alexander's strategies?
    Julius Caesar; Napoleon; George Washington; George Patton 

    What was the name of Alexander's horse?

    Who were Alexander's parents?
    Philip II and Olympius

    What happened when he was away from home?
    His father married another woman and had a child

    Tuesday, March 8, 2016

    Alexander Video

    - historians debate for Alexander's death
    - his body was missing after he died
    - for centuries his body lay on the city of Alexandria
    alexanders tomb is one of the archeologist holy grails
    - his tomb now is in a museum in England
    - his brilliant war techniques are still used for many military colleges today
    - his soldiers were so loyal to him
    - he fought with his soldiers and knew their names
    - over the centuries military commanders still relied on his strategies
    George Washington's military strategies owed a lot to Alexander
    Napoleon was also influenced by Alexander a lot

    - like Alexander he built his power on a series of daring military victories
    - he was inspired totally loyalty from his men 
    - they both knew their soldiers by names and rewarded them for their bravery on the battlefield
    - George S Patton was like Alexander
    - he studied his enemies for weaknesses
    - he most admired Alexander for the discipline he instilled in his troop
    - Alexander created a new trade route and cultural relationships between eastern and western
    - he spread Greek culture
    - Alexander the Great became the symbol of unbridled ambition
    - two and half thousand years later we are still talking about his amazing explosion

    Saturday, March 5, 2016

    Alexander the Great The Man Behind the Legend Continue

    - Alexander went to Egypt and was welcome
    - gave him title pharaoh and he thought of himself as true living god
    - Egyptian culture and tradition were still allowed after taking over
    - his mother told him his father was Zeus
    - oracle: a psychic, someone that could see the future
    - phalanx 16x16
    - his strategies were still used today (West Point)
    - Darius was murdered by his office because he fled from battle for a second time
    - Hindu Kush mountain was one of the most difficult paths to go through
    - recruited Persians to be in his army
    - wanted his soldiers to marry Persian women in order to merge different cultures
    - treated his soldiers badly in the end
    - once killed one of them when he was drunk
    - died in Babylon probably caused by his soldiers
    - Babylon was where he wanted to build his capital

    Thursday, March 3, 2016

    Alexander the Great The Man Behind the Legend

    After the golden age of Athens Athenians lost the Peloponnesian War 
    → no longer was a big powerful place

    - blend west and east (Hellenistic)
    - in 323 BC
    - born in Pella in 356 BC
    - his father was Philip II (monarchy)
    - Philip missed his right eye because of the war
    - learnt military training and leadership from his father
    - his mother was Olympus who was a powerful women
    - his mother always drunk a lot
    - he learnt Greek culture from his master Aristotle
    - he was away from home 3 years old and went back 16 years old
    - during that time his father married another woman and had a new son
    - his father wanted his new son to be the next king which made Alexander angry
    - In 336 BC his father died (probably he killed his father)
    - he became the king at 20 years old

    - Greeks under his father's rule rebelled and he killed them
    - In 334 BC he left Pella with his soldiers
    - he invaded Persia and the king of Persia was Darius III at that time
    - he marched to Troy first and then Issus
    - he was a military strategic genius
    - knew how to do when overnumbered (phalanx 16x16)
    - increased morale
    After the war Darius fled away
    15,000 Persian soldiers were killed in a day during the war
    Darius stayed away and watch
    Alexander fought with them, he protected them and made them safe
    - then he marched to Tyre and occupied there in 7 months
    - 7000 people were killed
    - then he invaded Gaza and killed all men in city

    Wednesday, March 2, 2016

    The Spread of Hellenistic Culture

    Alexander: sought to meld culture with Greeks
    From Egyptian Alexandria to Asian Alexandrias linked together → shared Greek culture and common language
    But had its own traditional ways of life, religion and government

    Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria
    Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences → Hellenistic culture
    Language: Konie (direct result of culture blending) → enabled people had different backgrounds to communicate

    Trade and Cultural Diversity
    The Egyptian city of Alexandria: the center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
    Trade ships grew and prosper because of Alexandria's thriving commerce
    By the third century BC Alexandria became an international community → diverse population exceeded half of a million people

    Alexandria's Attractions
    Both residents and visitors admired Alexandria's great beauty
    - avenues lined with statues of Greek gods
    - magnificent royal palaces
    - a much visited tomb contained Alexandria's glass coffin
    - an enormous stone lighthouse called Pharos
    Museum (a temple dedicated to the Muses): institute of advanced study
    Library (first true researched library)
    Contained many masterpieces of ancient literature → helped scholars produce commentaries to explain these works

    Science and Technology
    Alexandrian scholars provided most of the scientific knowledge available to the West until 16th and 17th centuries

    Museum contained a small observatory helped astronomers study the planets and stars
    Aristarchus of Samos:
    1) Sun was at least 300 times larger than Earth
    2) Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun
    - incorrectly placed Earth at the center of the solar system
    - astronomers accepted this view for the next 14 centuries
    Eratosthenes (director of the Alexandrian Library):
    - try to calculate Earth's size (28,000-29,000 miles)
    - morden measurements 24,860 miles
    - astronomer, mathematician, poet and historian

    Mathematics and Physics
    Euclid (mathematician):
    - compiled a geometry text (Aristarchus and Eratosthenes used)
    - taught in Alexandria
    - best-known book was Elements
    Archimedes of Syracuse (scientist):
    - studied at Alexandria
    - estimated the value of pi
    - explained the law of the lever
    - invented Archimedes screw and compound pulley
    - Hellenistic scientists built a force pump using his ideas

    Philosophy and Art
    The teaching of Plato and Aristotle continued to be influential
    In the third century BC philosophers concerned how people should live their lives

    Stoicism and Epicureanism
    - the school of philosophy founded by Zeno (335-263 BC)
    - people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of god or the natural laws that God established to run the universe

    - human desires, power and wealth were dangerous distractions

    - the school founded by Epicurus
    - gods who had no interest in humans ruled the universe
    - real objects were only perceived by five senses
    - greatest good and highest pleasure came from virtuous conduct and the absence of pain
    - main goal of human was to achieve harmony of body and mind
    - epicurean: a person devoted to pursuing human pleasure, especially the enjoyment of good food
    - advocated moderation

    Realism in Sculpture
    People used statues to honor gods, commemorate heroes and portray ordinary people
    Colossus of Rhodes:
    - largest Hellenistic statue 
    - created on the island of Rhodes 
    - bronze
    - 100 feet high
    - one of the seven wonders of the ancient world

    - toppled by an earthquake in 225 BC
    Nike (Winged Victory) of Samothrace:
    - found on Rhodes
    - created in 203 BC to commemorate a Greek naval victory
    Hellenistic sculpture created more natural works → feel free to explore new subjects, 
    Carving ordinary people such as an old wrinkled peasant woman
    By 150 BC the Hellenistic world was decline 
    Rome → Greek culture was preserved and became the core of Western civilization

    Tuesday, March 1, 2016

    Timelines and Battles

    Today at the beginning of the class we discussed about what Macedonia was and why it was so important. Then we talked about the privacy and terrorism.

    - Macedonia was north of Greece
    - Wanted to take control of Greece and Persia
    - Alexander was taught by Aristotle and learnt many skills as the prince

    - In 359 BC Philip became the king of Macedonia
    - In 338 BC Philip prepared to invade Greece, Athens and Thebes joined forces to fight Philip
    - In 336 BC Philip was murdered in his daughter's weeding, then Alexander proclaimed himself king of Macedonia
    - In 334 BC Alexander invaded Persia (the first battle)
    - In 332 BC Alexander marched to Egypt (the second battle)
    - In 326 BC Alexander and his army reached Indus Valley but then they turned back
    - In 323 BC Alexander and his army reached Babylon, then died at the age of 32

    Battle of Philip
    Macedonians defeated Greeks at the battle of Chaeronea → ended Greek independence
    Self-government in local affairs but firmly under the control of a succession of foreign power

    Battle of Alexander
    1) The first battle
    In 334 BC Alexander invaded Persia
    Two forces met at the Granicus River (35,000 Macedonian soldiers and 40,000 Persian defenders)
    Alexander ordered his cavalry to attack first
    Then Darius III raised a huge army (50,000-75,000) to crush the invaders but failed
    Alexander broke through a weak point in Persian line and the army charged straight at Darius
    This victory gave Alexander control over Anatolia

    2) The second battle
    Darius tried to negotiate a peace settlement (the lands west of Euphrates River)
    Alexander rejected → conquer the entire Persian Empire
    In 332 BC Alexander marched to a Persian territory, Egypt
    Egyptians welcomed him as the liberator → crowned him pharaoh
    Founded the city of Alexandria at the mouth of Nile
    Two armies met at Gaugamela (250,000 Persian soldiers)
    Alexander: phalanx and cavalry → his victory ended Persia's power
    Occupied many wealthy cities and burned Persia's royal capital