Thursday, May 19, 2016

Northern Renaissance

Too interested in gaining money and power
reforms → rebellion
Humanism weaken the Church → new religious reform (Germany)
difficult to impose central authority

Leaders were corrupt
Priests not educated/broke vows
Reforms (pope had right/Bible/own opinion)

Martin Luther
want to be good Christian not lead a religious revolution
Against Johann Tetzel (indulgence) 1517
spread of 95 Theses → led the founding of Christian churches
3 main ideas
- win salvation only by faith
- teaching should base on Bible
- all people with faith were equal (no priest)
suggest drive pope from the church by forces

Excommunication unless took back statements
threw decree into flame
Charles V: Catholic emperor
take back → refused
Edict of Worms: no one can give him food or shelter/book burned
Prince Frederick disobeyed
translated New Testament in German

apply idea to society
peasants' revolt horrified Luther
asked Prince to crush the revolt
feeling betrayed → reject Luther's leadership
German princes support Luther → seize power from Church
Protestants (Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches)
↓ princes who signed protest against the agreement
War between Charles V and princes (defeated but failed to back to Catholic)
Peace of Augsburg (each ruler decide religion of his state)

England (broke ties for political and personal reasons)
Henry VIII wanted to have a son to avoid civil war
want to divorce and take a younger queen → not allowed
asked pope to annul but was refused (did not want to offend his nephew Charles V)
solve problem himself → ended the pope's power (Reformation Parliament)
Parliament (Act of Supremacy)
Thomas More (opposition) → finally executed
Anne Boleyn (second wife) → same
His children ruled England in turn → religious turmoil
Edward (Protestant)
Mary (Catholic)
Elizabeth (Protestantism)

Set up Anglican Church (Church of England) → only legal church
accept both Catholic and Protestant → religious peace
- asked to make more far-reaching church forms (Protestants)
- replaced with her cousin Mary Queen of Scots(Catholic)
- Philip II (Catholic king of Spain)
- money

Tuesday, May 17, 2016


Renaissance (1300-1600)
- rebirth (of learning and culture)
- Northern Italy
- center of the action
- wealthy merchants and bankers
- artists inspired by Rome and Greece

- merchants dominated politics
- powerful banking family
- paid people to create works of art
- patrons

Isabella d' Este
- singer, lute player and dancer
- wealthy powerful parents
- sponsored artists
- fashionista

- a interest in what people achieved
- resembles the Greek idea of arete
- classical writings
- secular values (worldly)
- Christian values

Renaissance Man/Woman
- someone master many fields of work
- Leonardo da Vinci
- Isabella d'Este

Artistic styles and methods
- Sculpture
- realistic figures (Pieta)
- Painting
- perspective (fresco)
- freshly laid/wet lime plaster
- pigment plaster
- Literature
- vernacular (previously in Latin or Greek)
- express own thoughts and feelings
- The Prince
- the aims of princes - such as glory and survival - can justify the use of immoral means to achieve those ends

Northern Renaissance
- ideas moved from Italy
- combined with religious ideas
- learning spread rapidly
- due to the printing press

The Printing Press
- Johannes Gutenberg 
- revolutionized it in Germany in 1439

Wednesday, May 4, 2016

Study Guide

Study Guide
Christianity begins with Jesus
Gospel: good news
Jesus: Jewish itinerant preacher in Judea (set himself apart from other Messiahs)
Message of love
Deemed a threat to Roman rule and was crucified
Paul of Tarsus (after a miraculous vision of Jesus on the road to Damascus/Syria)
Paul talked of “predestination” (God chose who was to be saved and who be damned)
Paul helped found churches and kept in touch with new Christians by letters (Epistles)
(Corinth, Thessalonia, Rome, Ephesus)
Both Jews and Christians were monotheistic (refused to worship Roman gods)
Pax Romana (easy travel and spread idea-common languages Greek and Latin)
Paul wasn’t the only one
Poor Romans were receptive audience
Persecuted by Roman authorities (monotheism contradicted Roman law)
Things began go wrong for RE (scapegoats needed)
Grow: 1) embraced all people 2) gave hope to the powerless 3) appealed to those who were disgusted by imperial Rome’s decadence 4) offered a personal relationship with God 5) promised eternal life after death
Conversion of Constantine (AD 312) Roman emperor Constantine
Sees image of cross and words (in this sign, conquer) before a key battle
Put cross on shields (win)
Edict of Milan (AD 313) recognized by emperor, continue gain strength
By 380 became official religion (Chi-Rho cross)
Rome weakens (military, economy, social, political)
M: weak to defend huge area/ E: taxes high, gap between rich and poor, trade disrupted/ S: do not care public affairs, disloyalty, population decrease/ P: division of empire (Constantine moved capital to Byzantium)
Last emperor in 476 (14-Romulus Augustulus)
Christos: messiah or savior
Diaspora: the dispersal of Jews after rebellion
Germanic kingdoms reunited under Charlemagne’s empire
Middle Ages = medieval period (AD 476-AD 1453) Europe fragmented
From the end of RE to the conquest of Constantinople by Turks
New society roots: 1) classical heritage of Rome 2) beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church 3) customs of various Germanic tribes
Germanic invaders overrun western half of the RE (5th)
Causing: 1) disruption of trade 2) downfall of cities 3) population shifts to rural areas
Effects of invasion: decline of learning
1)         Tribes cannot read Greek or Latin (oral tradition) 2) Romance languages evolve 3) few were literate
Germanic Kingdom (AD 400-600): warriors loyal to lord of the manor
Result: 1) no orderly government for large areas 2) small communities rule
Clovis (rules Franks/Gaul): battlefield conversion-became Christians (in 496)
Franks united into one kingdom by 511, Clovis and Church working as partners
Benedict writes rules for monks in 520, his sister Scholastica writes for nuns
1)         Vows of poverty 2) chastity 3) obedience
They operate schools, maintain libraries and copy books
Theocracy: Pope Gregory I (Gregory the Great) goes secular
Church revenues used to help poor, build roads and raise armies
Christendom extend from Italy to England from Spain to Germany
Clovis rules until dies in 511, rest Europe consists of small kingdoms
Charles Martel/Charles the Hammer (descendant)
Defeats a Muslim raiding party from Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732
Pepin the Short (son) works w/ Church and named “king by the grace of God” by Pope
Charles the Great/Charlemagne (son #2)
Age of Faith
Church has considerable spiritual and political power
Over 500 Gothic cathedrals were built (1170-1270)
Jerusalem (controlled by Muslims in 11th)
Muslims, Jews and Christians’ Holy City
Dome of the Rock (Islam) Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Christian)
Western Wall (Judaism)
In 1093 Emperor Alexius Comnenus wrote a letter to Pope Urban II
Holy War: recapture Jerusalem from Muslim Turks
Began 200 years of religiously sanctioned military campaigns (1095-1291)
Crusade: taking of the cross
Pope promised immediate remission for their sins
Effects of Crusades:
Decline: Byzantine Empire, Pope and feudal nobles’ power

Grow: religious intolerance, Muslim distrust Christians, trade between Europe and Middle East, European technology, Italian cities expand trade

Thursday, April 28, 2016

Notes of Crusade

Age of Faith
- church has a complete system
- collect money and found stuff
- not only spiritual but also political power


- Muslims (new religion) controlled here in late 11th
- holy city to Muslims, Christians and Jews
- in a singel place and close

Holy War

- government and church work together (Pope Urban II)
- recaptured Jerusalem from Muslims
- crusade: taking of the cross
- do this get immediate forgiveness
- still continue today

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

Notes Again

New Society
- Roman Empire
- Roman Church
- tribes

Roman Empire
- eastern (easy to control)
- western
- trade decline (not safety → no legion to protect)
- so stay home not travel → economy decline
- city (horrible to live)
- population shifts from city to rural (can alive)

- decrease of learning ability
- tribes (telling story) oral
- most important written in Greek/Latin
- all doing just job
- Romance language (language out of Roman Empire)
- similar but different (cannot understand)
- nobody setting school
- no kids go to school just work for living

Medieval Period
- rich people won a little army
- set people themselves
- lord of manor
- have people to perform (skills)

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

The Crusades

- the Age of Faith
- Roman Empire is the strongest kingdom
- the Church has considerable spiritual and political power
- over 500 Gothic cathedrals were built in Europe (1170-1270)

- controlled by Muslims (late 11th century)
- Islam's 3rd holiest City (Mecca and Medina)
- Holy City to Jews and Christians
Dome of the Rock (Islam)
Church of the Holy Sepulcher (Christian)
Western Wall (Judaism)

The "Holy War"
- Emperor Alexius Comnenus wrote a letter to Pope Urban II (1093)
- Pope put out the call for Christians to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim Turks
- religiously sanctioned military campaigns (1095-1291)
- crusade: taking of the cross (crux)
- "soldiers of the Church" took vows to take back the Holy Land
- Pope: who died in the endeavor would receive immediate remission for their sins
- Roger Bacon: Muslims who survive are more and more embittered against the Christian faith

- Byzantine Empire is weakened
- Pope's power declines
- power of feudal nobles weakens
- religious intolerance grows
- Italian cities expand trade
- Muslims distrust Christians
- trade grows between Europe and Middle East
- European technology improves (Christians learn from Muslims)

Germanic Kingdoms Unite under Charlemagne

Main Idea
- Germanic kingdoms were reunited under Charlemagne's empire
- Charlemagne spread Christianity to northern Europe

Setting the Stage
- Middle Ages = medieval period (AD 476-1453)
- fragmented

Roots of New Society
- classical heritage of Rome
- beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church
- customs of various Germanic tribes

Germanic invaders overrun the Roman Empire (5th century)
- disruption of trade
- downfall of cities
- population shifts to rural areas

Effects of Invasion
- decline of learning
tribes cannot read Greek or Latin
Romance languages evolve
few were literate

Germanic Kingdoms
- emerge AD 400-600
- warriors' loyalty to the lord of manor (provides food/weapons/treasure)
- result
no orderly government for large areas
small communities rule

- rules Germanic people of Gual (Franks)
- in 496 had a battlefield conversion (Christians)
- by 511 Franks are united into one kingdom (Clovis and the Church)

Spread of Christianity
- church + Frankish ruler = rise in Christianity
- rules for monks (Benedict in 520)
vows of poverty
- similar rules for nuns (sister Scholastica)
- they operate schools, maintain libraries and copy books

- Pope Gregory I (Gregory the Great) goes secular
- church revenues for helping poor, building roads and raising armies
- Christendom extends from Italy to England from Spain to Germany

- Clovis rules Franks until his death (511)
- rest of Europe consists of smaller kingdoms
- Charles Martel known as Charles the Hammer
- Battle of Tours in 732 (Hammer defeats a Muslim raiding party from Spain)

Follow the Hammer
- Pepin the Short (son)
- works with Church and is named "king by the grace of God" by the Pope
- dies in 768, leaving 2 sons
- Carolman (dies in 771)
- Charles, known as Charlemagne (Charles the Great)