Thursday, May 19, 2016

Northern Renaissance

Too interested in gaining money and power
reforms → rebellion
Humanism weaken the Church → new religious reform (Germany)
difficult to impose central authority

Leaders were corrupt
Priests not educated/broke vows
Reforms (pope had right/Bible/own opinion)

Martin Luther
want to be good Christian not lead a religious revolution
Against Johann Tetzel (indulgence) 1517
spread of 95 Theses → led the founding of Christian churches
3 main ideas
- win salvation only by faith
- teaching should base on Bible
- all people with faith were equal (no priest)
suggest drive pope from the church by forces

Excommunication unless took back statements
threw decree into flame
Charles V: Catholic emperor
take back → refused
Edict of Worms: no one can give him food or shelter/book burned
Prince Frederick disobeyed
translated New Testament in German

apply idea to society
peasants' revolt horrified Luther
asked Prince to crush the revolt
feeling betrayed → reject Luther's leadership
German princes support Luther → seize power from Church
Protestants (Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches)
↓ princes who signed protest against the agreement
War between Charles V and princes (defeated but failed to back to Catholic)
Peace of Augsburg (each ruler decide religion of his state)

England (broke ties for political and personal reasons)
Henry VIII wanted to have a son to avoid civil war
want to divorce and take a younger queen → not allowed
asked pope to annul but was refused (did not want to offend his nephew Charles V)
solve problem himself → ended the pope's power (Reformation Parliament)
Parliament (Act of Supremacy)
Thomas More (opposition) → finally executed
Anne Boleyn (second wife) → same
His children ruled England in turn → religious turmoil
Edward (Protestant)
Mary (Catholic)
Elizabeth (Protestantism)

Set up Anglican Church (Church of England) → only legal church
accept both Catholic and Protestant → religious peace
- asked to make more far-reaching church forms (Protestants)
- replaced with her cousin Mary Queen of Scots(Catholic)
- Philip II (Catholic king of Spain)
- money

Tuesday, May 17, 2016


Renaissance (1300-1600)
- rebirth (of learning and culture)
- Northern Italy
- center of the action
- wealthy merchants and bankers
- artists inspired by Rome and Greece

- merchants dominated politics
- powerful banking family
- paid people to create works of art
- patrons

Isabella d' Este
- singer, lute player and dancer
- wealthy powerful parents
- sponsored artists
- fashionista

- a interest in what people achieved
- resembles the Greek idea of arete
- classical writings
- secular values (worldly)
- Christian values

Renaissance Man/Woman
- someone master many fields of work
- Leonardo da Vinci
- Isabella d'Este

Artistic styles and methods
- Sculpture
- realistic figures (Pieta)
- Painting
- perspective (fresco)
- freshly laid/wet lime plaster
- pigment plaster
- Literature
- vernacular (previously in Latin or Greek)
- express own thoughts and feelings
- The Prince
- the aims of princes - such as glory and survival - can justify the use of immoral means to achieve those ends

Northern Renaissance
- ideas moved from Italy
- combined with religious ideas
- learning spread rapidly
- due to the printing press

The Printing Press
- Johannes Gutenberg 
- revolutionized it in Germany in 1439

Wednesday, May 4, 2016

Study Guide

Study Guide
Christianity begins with Jesus
Gospel: good news
Jesus: Jewish itinerant preacher in Judea (set himself apart from other Messiahs)
Message of love
Deemed a threat to Roman rule and was crucified
Paul of Tarsus (after a miraculous vision of Jesus on the road to Damascus/Syria)
Paul talked of “predestination” (God chose who was to be saved and who be damned)
Paul helped found churches and kept in touch with new Christians by letters (Epistles)
(Corinth, Thessalonia, Rome, Ephesus)
Both Jews and Christians were monotheistic (refused to worship Roman gods)
Pax Romana (easy travel and spread idea-common languages Greek and Latin)
Paul wasn’t the only one
Poor Romans were receptive audience
Persecuted by Roman authorities (monotheism contradicted Roman law)
Things began go wrong for RE (scapegoats needed)
Grow: 1) embraced all people 2) gave hope to the powerless 3) appealed to those who were disgusted by imperial Rome’s decadence 4) offered a personal relationship with God 5) promised eternal life after death
Conversion of Constantine (AD 312) Roman emperor Constantine
Sees image of cross and words (in this sign, conquer) before a key battle
Put cross on shields (win)
Edict of Milan (AD 313) recognized by emperor, continue gain strength
By 380 became official religion (Chi-Rho cross)
Rome weakens (military, economy, social, political)
M: weak to defend huge area/ E: taxes high, gap between rich and poor, trade disrupted/ S: do not care public affairs, disloyalty, population decrease/ P: division of empire (Constantine moved capital to Byzantium)
Last emperor in 476 (14-Romulus Augustulus)
Christos: messiah or savior
Diaspora: the dispersal of Jews after rebellion
Germanic kingdoms reunited under Charlemagne’s empire
Middle Ages = medieval period (AD 476-AD 1453) Europe fragmented
From the end of RE to the conquest of Constantinople by Turks
New society roots: 1) classical heritage of Rome 2) beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church 3) customs of various Germanic tribes
Germanic invaders overrun western half of the RE (5th)
Causing: 1) disruption of trade 2) downfall of cities 3) population shifts to rural areas
Effects of invasion: decline of learning
1)         Tribes cannot read Greek or Latin (oral tradition) 2) Romance languages evolve 3) few were literate
Germanic Kingdom (AD 400-600): warriors loyal to lord of the manor
Result: 1) no orderly government for large areas 2) small communities rule
Clovis (rules Franks/Gaul): battlefield conversion-became Christians (in 496)
Franks united into one kingdom by 511, Clovis and Church working as partners
Benedict writes rules for monks in 520, his sister Scholastica writes for nuns
1)         Vows of poverty 2) chastity 3) obedience
They operate schools, maintain libraries and copy books
Theocracy: Pope Gregory I (Gregory the Great) goes secular
Church revenues used to help poor, build roads and raise armies
Christendom extend from Italy to England from Spain to Germany
Clovis rules until dies in 511, rest Europe consists of small kingdoms
Charles Martel/Charles the Hammer (descendant)
Defeats a Muslim raiding party from Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732
Pepin the Short (son) works w/ Church and named “king by the grace of God” by Pope
Charles the Great/Charlemagne (son #2)
Age of Faith
Church has considerable spiritual and political power
Over 500 Gothic cathedrals were built (1170-1270)
Jerusalem (controlled by Muslims in 11th)
Muslims, Jews and Christians’ Holy City
Dome of the Rock (Islam) Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Christian)
Western Wall (Judaism)
In 1093 Emperor Alexius Comnenus wrote a letter to Pope Urban II
Holy War: recapture Jerusalem from Muslim Turks
Began 200 years of religiously sanctioned military campaigns (1095-1291)
Crusade: taking of the cross
Pope promised immediate remission for their sins
Effects of Crusades:
Decline: Byzantine Empire, Pope and feudal nobles’ power

Grow: religious intolerance, Muslim distrust Christians, trade between Europe and Middle East, European technology, Italian cities expand trade