Tuesday, April 26, 2016

The Crusades

- the Age of Faith
- Roman Empire is the strongest kingdom
- the Church has considerable spiritual and political power
- over 500 Gothic cathedrals were built in Europe (1170-1270)

- controlled by Muslims (late 11th century)
- Islam's 3rd holiest City (Mecca and Medina)
- Holy City to Jews and Christians
Dome of the Rock (Islam)
Church of the Holy Sepulcher (Christian)
Western Wall (Judaism)

The "Holy War"
- Emperor Alexius Comnenus wrote a letter to Pope Urban II (1093)
- Pope put out the call for Christians to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim Turks
- religiously sanctioned military campaigns (1095-1291)
- crusade: taking of the cross (crux)
- "soldiers of the Church" took vows to take back the Holy Land
- Pope: who died in the endeavor would receive immediate remission for their sins
- Roger Bacon: Muslims who survive are more and more embittered against the Christian faith

- Byzantine Empire is weakened
- Pope's power declines
- power of feudal nobles weakens
- religious intolerance grows
- Italian cities expand trade
- Muslims distrust Christians
- trade grows between Europe and Middle East
- European technology improves (Christians learn from Muslims)

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