Thursday, April 14, 2016

Rome Notes5

Caesar Seizing Power
- served as consul for 1 year
- appointed himself the governor of Gaul
- Pompey felt jealous then they became rivals
- Caesar's army clashed his army in Greece, Asia, Spain and Egypt
- in 44 BC became dictator
- first for 6 months then for life (people like him)

- granted citizenship to people in provinces (made them on his side)
- expanded senate (added his friends)
- created jobs for poor, especially public work project
- increased the pay for soldiers
- started colonies that people without land can own property

Why: his increasing power treated senators' political viability
How: lured him into senate and stabbed 23 times (finally stopped resisting)
Who: even included Brutus (Caesar's ally)
- senators did not be punished
- Octavius was Caesar's sole heir
- end of the Republic

Aftermath to the Murder
- Octavius took over (18)
- Mark Antony and Lepidus
- Second Triumvirate

A Doomed Alliance
- Octavius forced Lepidus to retire
- he became rival with Anthony
- Anthony partners up with Cleopatra of Egypt (female pharaoh)
- Octavius defeated them at the Battle of Actium

Octavius on His Way
- unchallenged ruler of Rome
- "Augustus" (honored one)
- "imperator" (supreme military commander)
- ↑ origin of word emperor
- Rome became empire not republic

Augustus (27BC-AD14: 41 years)
Tiberius (AD14-37)
- after son's death exiled himself from Rome and left his perfects in charge
Caligula (AD37-41)
- known as his cruelty, extravagance and perversity
- assassinated by a group of guards, senators, and imperial court, trying to re-establish the republic
Claudius (AD41-54)
- suffered fro many infirmties
- took over because he was the last male in his family
- ruled well
- died by poisoning (last wife's plan)
- made her son Nero take over
Nero (AD 54-68: 14 years)
- emphasized the arts
- huge fire in AD64 (though he did not fiddle)
- want to rebuild Rome to make it majestic
- hugely overspent, even raided temples for money
- historians do not look kindly on him

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