Tuesday, April 26, 2016

Germanic Kingdoms Unite under Charlemagne

Main Idea
- Germanic kingdoms were reunited under Charlemagne's empire
- Charlemagne spread Christianity to northern Europe

Setting the Stage
- Middle Ages = medieval period (AD 476-1453)
- fragmented

Roots of New Society
- classical heritage of Rome
- beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church
- customs of various Germanic tribes

Germanic invaders overrun the Roman Empire (5th century)
- disruption of trade
- downfall of cities
- population shifts to rural areas

Effects of Invasion
- decline of learning
tribes cannot read Greek or Latin
Romance languages evolve
few were literate

Germanic Kingdoms
- emerge AD 400-600
- warriors' loyalty to the lord of manor (provides food/weapons/treasure)
- result
no orderly government for large areas
small communities rule

- rules Germanic people of Gual (Franks)
- in 496 had a battlefield conversion (Christians)
- by 511 Franks are united into one kingdom (Clovis and the Church)

Spread of Christianity
- church + Frankish ruler = rise in Christianity
- rules for monks (Benedict in 520)
vows of poverty
- similar rules for nuns (sister Scholastica)
- they operate schools, maintain libraries and copy books

- Pope Gregory I (Gregory the Great) goes secular
- church revenues for helping poor, building roads and raising armies
- Christendom extends from Italy to England from Spain to Germany

- Clovis rules Franks until his death (511)
- rest of Europe consists of smaller kingdoms
- Charles Martel known as Charles the Hammer
- Battle of Tours in 732 (Hammer defeats a Muslim raiding party from Spain)

Follow the Hammer
- Pepin the Short (son)
- works with Church and is named "king by the grace of God" by the Pope
- dies in 768, leaving 2 sons
- Carolman (dies in 771)
- Charles, known as Charlemagne (Charles the Great)

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