Wednesday, February 17, 2016

Test Review 2

Key rivers and great civilization
Mesopotamia / Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Egypt / Nile River
India / Indus River
China / Huang He River

Greece's geography
A mountainous peninsula (cover 3/4)
- developed small, independent communities (city-states)
difficult to unite because of the terrain
- had limited/poor natural resources → trade (olives)
- surrounded by water → had many skilled sailors and shipbuilders

Identify the following
- Aegean Sea
- Ionian Sea
- Adriatic Sea
- Peloponnesus
- Athens
- Sparta
- Crete
- Asia Minor
- Macedonia

Dominated Greece from 1600-1100 BCE and controlled trade in the region
1400 BCE-  Mycenaeans invaded Crete and absorbed Minoan culture (writing system, language, art, politics, literature, religion)

A blind storyteller who composed the story of Trojan War
The Iliad - probably one of the last conquests of the Mycenaeans (the Trojan War)
The Odyssey (12,110 lines) - Odysseus attempts to return home after the Trojan War, being thwarted by the angry god of the sea, Poseidon

Government terms
- polis: fundamental political unit, made up of a city and the surrounding countryside
- monarchy: rule by a single person (a king, in Greece)
- aristocracy: rule by a small group of noble, very rich, landowning families
- oligarchy: wealthy groups, dissatisfied with aristocratic rule, who seized power (often with military help)
- tyrant: powerful individual who seized control by appealing to the common people for support

Aristocrats attended symposiums, meetings where the elite men would enjoy wine and poetry, performances by dancers and acrobats, and the company of hetaeras (courtesans) while discussing politics

- all citizens are equal under the law
- death is the punishment
- debt slavery
draconian - very severe or cruel
- outlaw debt slavery
- all citizens can speak at the assembly
- all citizens can press charges against wrongdoers
- all citizens can submit laws for debate at the assembly
- created Council of Five Hundred
Citizen: free adult male property owners born in Athens. No women, slaves, or foreigners

The most powerful infantry: Sparta (boys were trained for way at seven)
The most powerful navy: Athens (trireme)
Phalanx (Athens)
close-rank, dense grouping of warriors
- armed with long spears and interlocking shields
- soldiers would advance slowly toward the enemy, until they broke through their ranks

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