3. How does an aristocracy differ from an oligarchy?
An aristocracy is a government ruled by a small group of noble, landowning families. These very rich families often gained political power after serving in a king's military cavalry.
An oligarchy is a government ruled by a few powerful people. It was formed by a new class of wealthy merchants and artisans. When these groups became dissatisfied with aristocratic rule, they sometimes took power or shared it with the nobility.
4. What contributions did Solon and Cleisthenes make to the development of Athenian democracy?
1) outlawed the debt slavery
2) all citizens, regardless of class, could participate in the Athenian assembly
3) any citizen could bring charges against wrongdoers
1) broke up the power of the nobility by organizing citizens into ten groups based on where they lived rather than on their wealth
2) allowed all citizens to submit law for debate and passage at the assembly
3) created the Council of Five Hundred to propose laws and counsel the assembly, members were chosen at random
6. How was living in Athens different from living in Sparta?
Democratic, ruled by the people. In Athens, citizens participated directly in political decision making.
The sons of wealthy families received the formal education around the age of seven in order to be good citizens. They studied reading, grammar, poetry, history, mathematics and music. They also received training in logic and public speaking, spent time in athletic activities. When they got older, boys went to military school to help them prepare for defending Athens.
Girls were educated at home to learn how to be good wives and mothers, some of them could learn read and write. They had very little to do outside the boundaries of family and home.
Citizens could elected officials and vote on major issues. They did not value arts, literature, or other artistic and intellectual pursuits.
Boys left home and moved to army barracks at the age of seven, they were expected to serve in army until the age of sixty.
Girls also received some military training, they were taught to put service to Sparta above everything. As adults, Spartan women had considerable freedom, especially in running the family estates when their husbands were on active military service.