Wednesday, May 4, 2016

Study Guide

Study Guide
Christianity begins with Jesus
Gospel: good news
Jesus: Jewish itinerant preacher in Judea (set himself apart from other Messiahs)
Message of love
Deemed a threat to Roman rule and was crucified
Paul of Tarsus (after a miraculous vision of Jesus on the road to Damascus/Syria)
Paul talked of “predestination” (God chose who was to be saved and who be damned)
Paul helped found churches and kept in touch with new Christians by letters (Epistles)
(Corinth, Thessalonia, Rome, Ephesus)
Both Jews and Christians were monotheistic (refused to worship Roman gods)
Pax Romana (easy travel and spread idea-common languages Greek and Latin)
Paul wasn’t the only one
Poor Romans were receptive audience
Persecuted by Roman authorities (monotheism contradicted Roman law)
Things began go wrong for RE (scapegoats needed)
Grow: 1) embraced all people 2) gave hope to the powerless 3) appealed to those who were disgusted by imperial Rome’s decadence 4) offered a personal relationship with God 5) promised eternal life after death
Conversion of Constantine (AD 312) Roman emperor Constantine
Sees image of cross and words (in this sign, conquer) before a key battle
Put cross on shields (win)
Edict of Milan (AD 313) recognized by emperor, continue gain strength
By 380 became official religion (Chi-Rho cross)
Rome weakens (military, economy, social, political)
M: weak to defend huge area/ E: taxes high, gap between rich and poor, trade disrupted/ S: do not care public affairs, disloyalty, population decrease/ P: division of empire (Constantine moved capital to Byzantium)
Last emperor in 476 (14-Romulus Augustulus)
Christos: messiah or savior
Diaspora: the dispersal of Jews after rebellion
Germanic kingdoms reunited under Charlemagne’s empire
Middle Ages = medieval period (AD 476-AD 1453) Europe fragmented
From the end of RE to the conquest of Constantinople by Turks
New society roots: 1) classical heritage of Rome 2) beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church 3) customs of various Germanic tribes
Germanic invaders overrun western half of the RE (5th)
Causing: 1) disruption of trade 2) downfall of cities 3) population shifts to rural areas
Effects of invasion: decline of learning
1)         Tribes cannot read Greek or Latin (oral tradition) 2) Romance languages evolve 3) few were literate
Germanic Kingdom (AD 400-600): warriors loyal to lord of the manor
Result: 1) no orderly government for large areas 2) small communities rule
Clovis (rules Franks/Gaul): battlefield conversion-became Christians (in 496)
Franks united into one kingdom by 511, Clovis and Church working as partners
Benedict writes rules for monks in 520, his sister Scholastica writes for nuns
1)         Vows of poverty 2) chastity 3) obedience
They operate schools, maintain libraries and copy books
Theocracy: Pope Gregory I (Gregory the Great) goes secular
Church revenues used to help poor, build roads and raise armies
Christendom extend from Italy to England from Spain to Germany
Clovis rules until dies in 511, rest Europe consists of small kingdoms
Charles Martel/Charles the Hammer (descendant)
Defeats a Muslim raiding party from Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732
Pepin the Short (son) works w/ Church and named “king by the grace of God” by Pope
Charles the Great/Charlemagne (son #2)
Age of Faith
Church has considerable spiritual and political power
Over 500 Gothic cathedrals were built (1170-1270)
Jerusalem (controlled by Muslims in 11th)
Muslims, Jews and Christians’ Holy City
Dome of the Rock (Islam) Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Christian)
Western Wall (Judaism)
In 1093 Emperor Alexius Comnenus wrote a letter to Pope Urban II
Holy War: recapture Jerusalem from Muslim Turks
Began 200 years of religiously sanctioned military campaigns (1095-1291)
Crusade: taking of the cross
Pope promised immediate remission for their sins
Effects of Crusades:
Decline: Byzantine Empire, Pope and feudal nobles’ power

Grow: religious intolerance, Muslim distrust Christians, trade between Europe and Middle East, European technology, Italian cities expand trade

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