Thursday, May 19, 2016

Northern Renaissance

Too interested in gaining money and power
reforms → rebellion
Humanism weaken the Church → new religious reform (Germany)
difficult to impose central authority

Leaders were corrupt
Priests not educated/broke vows
Reforms (pope had right/Bible/own opinion)

Martin Luther
want to be good Christian not lead a religious revolution
Against Johann Tetzel (indulgence) 1517
spread of 95 Theses → led the founding of Christian churches
3 main ideas
- win salvation only by faith
- teaching should base on Bible
- all people with faith were equal (no priest)
suggest drive pope from the church by forces

Excommunication unless took back statements
threw decree into flame
Charles V: Catholic emperor
take back → refused
Edict of Worms: no one can give him food or shelter/book burned
Prince Frederick disobeyed
translated New Testament in German

apply idea to society
peasants' revolt horrified Luther
asked Prince to crush the revolt
feeling betrayed → reject Luther's leadership
German princes support Luther → seize power from Church
Protestants (Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches)
↓ princes who signed protest against the agreement
War between Charles V and princes (defeated but failed to back to Catholic)
Peace of Augsburg (each ruler decide religion of his state)

England (broke ties for political and personal reasons)
Henry VIII wanted to have a son to avoid civil war
want to divorce and take a younger queen → not allowed
asked pope to annul but was refused (did not want to offend his nephew Charles V)
solve problem himself → ended the pope's power (Reformation Parliament)
Parliament (Act of Supremacy)
Thomas More (opposition) → finally executed
Anne Boleyn (second wife) → same
His children ruled England in turn → religious turmoil
Edward (Protestant)
Mary (Catholic)
Elizabeth (Protestantism)

Set up Anglican Church (Church of England) → only legal church
accept both Catholic and Protestant → religious peace
- asked to make more far-reaching church forms (Protestants)
- replaced with her cousin Mary Queen of Scots(Catholic)
- Philip II (Catholic king of Spain)
- money

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